Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 4426 IREC Farmers' Newsletter No. 197 — Autumn 2017 Harvest as soon as the crop is mature, as lentil crops can turn brittle once fully matured and can be prone to shattering, especially following summer rainfall. Desiccation or windrowing can help avoid these harvest problems. To maximise grain quality, handle the seed carefully and avoid equipment blockages. Harvest during cooler conditions to improve harvest efficiency and reduce the risk of fire. Faba bean Faba bean originated in the Middle East and is now an important food crop in China and many Mediterranean and African countries. Australia’s main market is Egypt for human consumption, but the demand in China for beans used as both human and stock food in increasing. As faba bean receives greater attention in the western world, because of the value in livestock nutrition and crop rotation, there will be increasing export potential for Australian grain. Market prospects depend on the Egyptian crop as well as supplies from Europe, particularly France. Domestic market is stock feed, but increasing use for aquaculture pellets is expanding the market size. Prices are down at present due to the large crop in 2016 and good harvests in Europe, the preferred supplier into Egypt due to lower freight costs. The major risks to faba bean are ascochyta blight, chocolate spot, plant viruses and occasionally, rust. No varieties are resistant to all fungal and virus diseases. The impact of fungal diseases on yield can be reduced through the strategic selection and use of fungicides and following best practice crop management, including maintaining a 500 metre buffer between new crops and the previous year’s faba bean stubble, and eradicating volunteer plants over summer and autumn. Faba bean crops respond well to irrigation in dry areas. Furrow irrigation is successful in southern irrigation areas with either pre- water and sow, or dry-sow and water-up, following similar guidelines to those recommended for chickpea crops. Sprinkler irrigation is ideal to minimise waterlogging, however there may be a need for greater disease control against chocolate spot, rust or ascochyta blight due to more frequent wet conditions. To maximise yield potential, crops should be watered to produce maximum biomass, and not allowed to stress during flowering and pod-fill. The additional risk of foliar disease under irrigation must be taken into account, along with the risks associated with waterlogging, particularly after the commencement of flowering. Faba and broad beans are more sensitive to waterlogging during their reproductive stage (flowering and podding) so, if in doubt, do not water. Note that faba bean is one of the more sensitive field crops to salinity, but not as sensitive as field beans. Harvest on time, with a properly set up header. Start harvest when nearly all pods are black but before stems become completely dry and black. If the header settings are correct, pods will thresh easily to yield clean, whole seeds with a minimum of splits and cracks. Further information Phil Bowden M: 0427 201 946 E: W: In furrow irrigation systems, water every second row to avoid waterlogging. Doubling up the number of siphons can increase water flow and reduce irrigation time. Aim to have watering completed in less than eight hours, and have good tail water drainage to avoid any waterlogging in the crop area. If in doubt, do not water. Lentil There has been a massive increase in lentil production in southern Australia due to increased demand and higher prices. Grown mainly on alkaline soils in South Australia and Victoria, there has also been success in NSW on some acid soil types. Growers are more confident with the new herbicide-tolerant lentil varieties that increase the weed management options in lentil crops, however it is a crop that needs careful management. The main market is for human consumption in the Middle East and the sub-continent, so delivery standards are very tight and there are no secondary markets for lower quality grain. Lentil is generally considered a higher risk crop, compared with other pulses. Control foliar diseases through careful paddock selection (avoiding recent pathogen inoculum), crop canopy management and strategic fungicide applications as required. High humidity and excessive rainfall during the growing season encourages vegetative growth, which limits yield and can reduce seed quality. High temperatures during flowering and pod-fill also reduce yields. Irrigation of lentil is possible but good drainage is essential because lentil plants do not tolerate waterlogging, particularly during early flowering. Even short periods of waterlogging can result in severe losses. Management requirements for irrigated lentil are the same as for dryland crops, with a greater emphasis on disease control as irrigated crops are more prone to the spread of foliar diseases due to the dense canopy and potentially prolonged leaf wetness after irrigation. Salinity levels in irrigation water or the soil must be low. Lentil is one of the more sensitive field crops to salinity—almost as sensitive as green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), which require irrigation water < 0.7 dS/m for nil yield reduction. A 10% yield reduction is expected if the irrigation water measures 1.0 dS/m. Irrigation may be economical if the system allows adequate drainage, there is good quality water available and the rotation with other winter and summer crops is managed well to reduce the risk of disease pressure. Some experienced lentil growers in the eastern Mallee regions of Victoria successfully use overhead irrigation however flood irrigation of lentil crops is not widely practiced in Australia because the risk of yield loss to waterlogging is considered to be high. Pulse Australia expects interest in pulses to again be significant in 2017 and that a similar area to 2016 will be planted.